Hematological Changes in Typhoid Fever

Vol-6 | Issue-05 | May-2021 | Published Online: 15 May 2021    PDF ( 296 KB )
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31305/rrijm.2021.v06.i05.013
Safi Hameedullah 1; Rahimee Israrullah 2; Azimee Mohammad Azim 3

1Senior Teaching Assistant, Member of Microbiology Department, Medical Faculty, Nangarhar University

2Senior Teaching Assistant, Member of Microbiology Department, Medical Faculty, Nangarhar University

3Associate Professor, Member of Biochemistry Department, Medical Faculty, Nangarhar University


Background: Typhoid fever is caused by Gram Negative Rods called Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi. It is largely a disease of developing nations due to poor standards of hygiene. The most prominent feature of the Infection is fever which gradually rises to a high plateau.  This infection affect hematological parameters of the patients. We carried this study to determine the changes in various hematological parameters in our study subjects.

Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Nangarhar University Teaching Hospital, Microbiology Department on 100 Patients from 2020 June to 2020 November. The study design was case control .A total of 50 patients (Cases) with confirmed Diagnosis of typhoid fever on the basis of   Typhoidot (IgG and IgM were seen) enrolled in the study, 50 other healthy people were enrolled in the study as control group that had negative typhoidot result and no other complaint. Complete blood count was done for both group (Case and control). Considered hematological parameters includes hemoglobin (Hb), White Blood Cell count (WBC) and Platelet count (PLT).  As well interview were done with each patient and a questionnaire were used. Various demographic parameters like sex, age, economic state, education and clinical symptoms were asked. Then collected Data was analyzed with SPSS version 16.

Results. In the current study, A total of 100 patients were enrolled (50 were case, and 50 were control group). The average age of the patients under the study were (Mean±SD) 38.74±15.22 years. The most common hematological changes observed were; Anemia (32%), Thrombocytopenia (24%), Leukocytosis (8%) & Leucopenia (22%). Fever were the most common presenting symptom (78%) and abdominal symptoms were about 38%. Most of the people were of lower socioeconomic status and were Uneducated.

Conclusion: This study shows that typhoid fever is bacterial infection and are acquired by enteral route. This disease commonly affects people of low socio-economical status and those that are un-educated. Fever were the most commonly presenting symptom in these patients. Typhoid fever causes changes in the hematological parameters which is probably due to bone marrow suppression, which is transient and shows response to therapy.

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